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变被动听课者为主动学习者

更新时间:2020-07-14 所属栏目:论文范文

作者:胡阶娜 来源:课程教育研究 2020年8期
  【摘要】本文主要研究建構主义理论并将其运用于大学英语教学的实践之中。中国传统的英语课堂实际是受结构主义语言学和行为主义心理学主导,专注于知识和技能的灌输,学生无法灵活运用语言。这种传统教学模式主要是教师讲,学生听、记笔记,实际上是知识传播型的(transmissional)。但是,经过多年学习与努力,收效甚微,学生依然无法掌握英语学习的窍门。
  笔者就自己在南开大学英语教学、科研实践中发现,这主要是因为同学们缺乏对课堂的参与 (participation)。根据美国教育改革先驱杜威的理论,“认知的过程不是一个旁观者能完成的,而必须由参加者建构而成”。
  因此,哲学家维果茨基(Vygotsky)的社会认知建构主义理论比较具有实践意义。利用这一理论,可以把学生从被动听课者变为英语课堂上主动学习者和参加者。
  本文主要研究了下面几个方面:课堂互动模式、原汁原味的语料、合作式学习和学习者自治、把知识传播型(transmissional)课堂变为革新型(transformative)课堂。
  【关键词】建构主义  合作式学习  学习者自治  大学英语教学法
  【Abstract】This paper mainly discusses the topic of putting the theory of Constructivism into the practice of college English teaching in China. In the Chinese college English classroom, the traditional English teaching methods based on Structural linguistics and behavioristic psychology focusing on transmission of knowledge and skills can’t meet today’s students’ needs anymore.
  These traditional teaching methods are transmissional (teachers transmitting knowledge and skills to students). However, after years of fret over the English subject, students still cannot grasp the knack for English. To this author, that was mainly due to lack of participation from the students in the English class because according to the American educational reformer John Dewey, “Knowing is not done by an outside spectator but is instead constructed by a participant” (Oxford, P.42).
  Therefore the more practical theory of social-cognitive constructivism by the philosopher Vygotsky is more pertinent and effective in transforming students from passive receivers to be active learners and participants in the English class.
  This paper focuses on four aspects of a Constructive class: Mode of Classroom Interaction; Authentic Material; Cooperative Learning/ Learner Autonomy and From Transmissional to Transformative.
  【Key Words】Constructivism; Cooperative Learning; Learner Autonomy; College English teaching Pedagogies
  【基金项目】中央高校建设世界一流大学(学科)和特色发展引导专项基金,,项目编号: 96176308。
  【中图分类号】G642.41 【文献标识码】A 【文章编号】2095-3089(2020)08-0103-03
  Introduction
  Constructivism views students as the participating builders of a class as the teacher. This is in contrast with Gagne’s theory of instruction which views the teacher as the transmitter of knowledge while students are passive receivers.
  In the class guided by Gagne’s theory of instruction, students lack initiative, the class is boring without or with minimal interaction between the teacher and the students; while a constructive class is more vivid and lively, involving students as active participants of the class and preferably, even creators of knowledge.


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